Skylake overclocking

From Overclocking Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search

Skylake is the successor to the Broadwell processor architecture from Intel. The platform launched on August 5th, 2015 at Gamescom, a German gaming event in Cologne.[1] Skylake is produced using Intel's 14nm manufacturing process. At launch the Skylake architecture set 7 World Records and 10 Global First Places [2]. The Skylake processors are most renowned for the overclocking capabilities of their locked processors.


Overclocking

Der8auer's first Skylake at 7 GHz

At IDF'15 Intel shared details on the practical application of Skylake overclocking. Compared to previous micro-architectures, Skylake is able to use an independent base clock generator. This allows motherboard partners to integrated an external clock generator to overclock the BCLK to well over 500 MHz. The following clock domains are available:

  • Core Frequency Ratio: up to 83x in steps of 100 MHz
  • Graphics Frequency Ratio: up to 60x in steps of 50 MHz
  • Memory Frequency ratio: up to DDR4-4133 in steps of 100 or 133 MHz
  • Cache/Ring Frequency Ratio:
  • Fclk Frequency Ratio: 4x, 8x or 10x
  • Base Clock frequency: up to 500 MHz+ using external clock generator, up to 200 MHz without external clock generator and up to 102.9 MHz on locked parts

Skylake does not feature an integrated voltage regulator.

At launch, the highest overclocking frequencies for Skylake were:

  • Core i7 6700K: 6801 MHz by Toppc [3]
  • Core i5 6600K: 6808 MHz by Smoke [4]
  • Memory Frequency: 2397.7 MHz (DDR4-4795) by Chi-Kui Lam [5]
  • Reference Clock: 552.27 MHz[6]
Intel CEO Brian Krzanich at IDF 2015

During the Intel Developer Forum 2015 in San Francisco, Skylake prominently featured in The Game Changer session with Doug Fisher and Kirk Skaugen[7]. American overclockers Allen "Splave" Golibersuch and George "L0ud_sil3nc3" X were invited on stage to show the capabilities of the new processor. Kirk Skaugen, Senior Vice Pesident and General Manager of the Client Computing Group (CCG) at Intel, announced 7 benchmark world records achieved on launch day. Charles "Fugger" Wirth, owner of XtremeSystems.org, was invited on stage to talk about Skylake overclocking. The trio achieved a new best in the XTU benchmark with the Core i7 6700K, out-performing the results set during the first weeks following the Skylake launch.

Intel CEO Mr. Brian Krzanich famously passed by the extreme overclocking demonstration afterwards[8]

On January 5, 2016, Der8auer is the first overclocker to reach 7 GHz on Skylake[9] using the Core i7 6700K processor. According to the validation submitted to the CPU-Z database, Der8auer used a multiplier of 69x and a base clock frequency of 101.56 MHz. The retail Core i7 6700K has only one of the four cores enabled and also has the uncore under-clocked to 2438 MHz.

Leaks prior to launch

Skylake overclocking leak on June 25, 2015

On June 25, 2015, a user by the nickname PLG submitted an Skylake overclocking results to the CPU-Z database showing a Core i7 6700K (engineering sample) overclocked to 6531 MHz[10]. The motherboard used is the MSI Z170 Gaming 7. The result was later removed or disabled by the CPU-Z database moderators.

On July 20, 2015, HKEPC leaked a CPU-Z validation screenshot of a Core i7 6700K processor overclocked to 5.2 GHz[11]. The screenshot was accompanied with the text "Intel Core i7-6700K @ 1.35V Air Cooling !! 看來Skylake真的比Broadwell好玩多了", hinting that reaching this frequency at 1.35V using air cooling makes Skylake a lot more fun compared to Broadwell.

On June 27, 2015, Benchlife.info published an overclocking result of a non-K processor alluding to the idea that these processors would be overclockable[12]. The screenshot shows a Core i7 6400T ES Q0 revision overclocked to 133 MHz base clock frequency up from a default of 100 MHz. According to HWBOT, the rumour of overclockable non-K processors had been floating inside the industry for a while but was debunked earlier that week[13]. An industry overclocker stated that the older engineering samples (Q0) could be overclocked, but the retail silicon (R0) will not support overclocking via the base clock frequency.

Non-K overclocking

Dhenzjhen's first non-K overclock submitted to HWBOT

On December 2, 2015, the overclocking world woke up with consternation as Dhenzjhen submitted three benchmark results with the Core i3 6320 overclocked to 4.6GHz[14]. As with any other Core i3 since Sandy Bridge, the processors are both locked on the CPU Ratio and base clock frequency. Dhenzjhen showed an overclock of 20 MHz of the base clock using a Supermicro H170 motherboard. The performance was shown in Cinebench R11.5, Cinebench R15 and Geekbench3 Multi Core.

On December 5, 2015, Alva "Lucky_n00b" Jonathan from JagatOC confirmed the Core i3 overclocking capabilities [15]. He demonstrated the overclocking capabilities by showing a Core i3 6100 processor running at 4.44 GHz. In the article Alva is the first to point out the problems with overclocking locked parts by highlighting the loss of performance in the AVX-enabled Intel Extreme Tuning Utility benchmark.

On December 11, 2015, Elmor was the first to show the performance of a Core i3 processor using liquid nitrogen. His Core i3 6300 processor reached 5800 MHz in the multi-threaded Cinebench R11.5 benchmark [16]. In a public discussion thread he highlights details the issues related to non-K overclocking:

  • No IGPU
  • No dynamic change of CPU frequency
  • No C-states
  • No Turbo Mode
  • CPU temperature reading is incorrect
  • AVX instructions have very low performance

On December 12, 2015, ASRock, ASUS and MSI released their non-K overclocking beta BIOSes.[17]. On December 24, 2015, GIGABYTE and Biostar also released their non-K overclocking BIOSes.[18]

On December 30, 2015, Hardware.fr published their findings on the poor AVX performance of overclocked non-K Skylake processors.[19]. The article references an entry on Agner's CPU blog which details how the Skylake processors deal with 256-bit vector instructions.

"I observed an interesting phenomenon when executing 256-bit vector instructions on the Skylake. There is a warm-up period of approximately 14 µs before it can execute 256-bit vector instructions at full speed. Apparently, the upper 128-bit half of the execution units and data buses is turned off in order to save power when it is not used. As soon as the processor sees a 256-bit instruction it starts to power up the upper half. It can still execute 256-bit instructions during the warm-up period, but it does so by using the lower 128-bit units twice for every 256-bit vector. The result is that the throughput for 256-bit vectors is 4-5 times slower during this warm-up period. If you know in advance that you will need to use 256-bit instructions soon, then you can start the warm-up process by placing a dummy 256-bit instruction at a strategic place in the code. My measurements showed that the upper half of the units is shut down again after 675 µs of inactivity."

Since the non-K overclocking capabilities disable any form of power management, it appears that Skylake processors are not able to enable the upper 128-bit half of the execution units, resulting in lower performance.

On February 9, 2016, Intel issued a statement to PCWorld.com announcing it would shut down the non-K overclocking via a BIOS microcode update[20]. This is particularly annoying for users who have a motherboard with a BIOS that is released after the micro-code is updated. Using Flash Programming Tool (FPT) it is possible to force-flash to an older BIOS version as Elmor showed in his how-to for ASUS Z170 motherboards[21].

BIOS List

Overclocking.guide has an extensive overview of the latest non-K overclocking BIOSes

Prime95 Issues

In early January 2016, forum members of the German computer enthusiast forum detected instability issues when stress-testing with Prime95. A fix has been developed and would be distributed via the hardware partners via a BIOS update[22]. The bug affects only specific workload scenarios and is not a concern for the majority of the Skylake users. It is confirmed that the issue occurs on both Windows and Linux and can be induces when configuring Prime95 to use Fast Fourier Transforms and an exponent size of 14,942,209.

Windows XP Support

Skylake motherboards are not compatible with Windows XP due to a lack of support for EHCI, installation from USB media as well as SATA IDE Legacy Mode. At launch, the ROG team detailed how to install Windows XP on Skylake based systems in their unofficial OC Guide[23]. The solution includes loading the XP media (ISO) to the system memory through a bootloader and inject the RAM-disk driver along with a compatible AHCI driver during the installation process.

On December 12, 2015, a forum user by the name of BarboneNet shared information on how to enable USB 3.0/3.1 in Windows XP using an Asmedia USB3.1 IC[24]

Delidding

Delidded Skylake micro-processor

Shortly after the launch, several experienced overclockers indicated that delidding the processor helps improve stability at higher frequencies[25]. Early reports state an improvement of well over 10 degrees centigrade on air cooling.

Because the thin PCB of Skylake processors, commercial tools for safe delidding became available to the market. On November 11, 2015, Roman Hartung (Der8auer) shared his Delid Die Mate product[26], a specialized tool for delidding. The tool became high in demand after it was shared on social media such as Reddit. The Delid Die Mate was first available through Caseking and is now produced by EK Water Blocks.

Following the Delid Die Mate, several other products hit the market

Mobile

At the Intel Developer Forum 2015 in San Francisco, Intel announced the first overclockable -K SKU for notebooks.[27] Kirk Skaugen, the then Senior Vice President & General Manager of the Intel PC Client Group, showed some early examples of MSI and EVGA notebooks with the Core i7 6820HK processor.

On September 2, 2015, ASUS ROG showed their water-cooled GX700 laptop at IFA'2015 in Berlin, Germany.[28] The notebook comes with an external water-cooling kit that can be hooked up to the compatible notebook. Overclocking tests later revealed that the overclocking the CPU and its cache, the GPU and its memory as well as enabling the XMP was fairly simple. Gains of up to 4GHz and +200/+300 were spotted.[29]

According to the HWBOT database, the average overclocking capabilities of the Core i7 6820HK is about 4.17 GHz. The highest overclock achieved using the processor is 4687 MHz using an MSI notebook.


Memory Overclocking

(first version of this segment is based on Alex@ro's guide posted at the HWBOT forum. It is work in progress and needs copy-editing)

Additional information:


Memory Timings

Primary Timings

Secondary Timings

Typically the following timings behave in a way that lower value results in better performance.

  • Refresh Cycle Time (TRFC): can go as low as 270 for E-die on even 4200+ speeds,AFR needs this at 340+ when going over 3800,D-die also needs it higher than E-die and needs to be tested on your kit. Performance boost is minimal but would not hurt for mental comfort to get it as low as you can.
  • tREFI: set to max(65535) gives slight better performance and does not hurt stability therefore no problems here.
  • Read to Precharge (TRTP) + Write Recovery Time (TWR): this comes as pack since you can’t adjust one independent from the other,can set to lowest 6 and 12 which will actually be reported as 13 in timing reader ,performance boost is decent actually .
  • Four Activate Window (tFAW): Usually setting this as 16 gained little performance,can go lower actually but not found any benefit at all so u should try also in your case.
  • RAS TO RAS DELAY (L and S): Typical values of 7 5,you can get them lower at lower speeds and also when using tight CL like C11 at higher speeds by lowering TRDWR_SG and DG.
  • WRITE TO READ DELAY (L AND S): As explained before the values shown are connected to TWRRD_sg and dg . Hynix does not like them set in bios lower than 6 opposed to Samsung which can go to 1 but performance is identical so nothing to gain here except lower them with the help of Twrrd_sg and dg .Too tight might cause problems so try to start with 7 7 and after reaching given speed try lower.
  • WRITE TO READ DELAY: Can go usually to 1 from default 6 or 7 ,performance gain is small but can be seen .
  • CAS WRITE LATENCY: Can be set as low as 8 however the benefit in my tests was 0 compared to 9 . When going lower can help you tighten the TWRRD_sg and dg ..

Tertiary Timings

  • TWRWR_DR and TWRWR_DR: Being advocated to go as low as it can this is actually a big lie as tested on all ic available I had found that going lower actually hurts and optimum value for high and medium speeds is actually 8. Tested on MFR,Samsung E-die and Kingston AFR,4 4 is worse than 8 8 period.
  • TWRRD_DR and TWRRD_DD: Actually encountered this issue when I left this timing on AUTO and went from DDR4 3466 C12 to C11 and got a worser score !. After a few tries I found that AUTO gave me 6 6 and after lowering this to 5-5 performance gain was normal . It actually can go lower to 4 4 and 3 3 but performance was similar to 5-5 on Hynix AFR and worser on Samsung E-die and stability was a little bit worse so I would recommend 5-5 in all cases period.
  • TWRRD_SG and TWRRD_DG: General rule is that they go tighter with CAS going lower and they are linked with Write to Read Delay L and S . Write to Read Delay L and S can go lower than 6 even to 1 but show no performance increase whatsoever,except when lowering them by TWRRD_SG and TWRRD_DG.

Memory ICs

There are a variety of memory ICs available that are compatible with Skylake and Z170. Not all are equally good for overclocking. A quick list below.

Hynix MFR

Hynix MFR is the classic of X99 and the worst IC for Skylake on ambient cooling. The main problems are high frequency and tight tCAS. It is not very voltage tolerant, resulting in situations where the memory would be more unstable when increasing the voltage.

Recommendation: The best sticks to look for are the ones that support higher voltages at higher speeds. Good sticks can bench DDR4-3200 12-15-15 under 1.6V and with good voltage tolerance they might get you to DDR4-3333 12 +

Hynix AFR

Hynix AFR is the improved die from Hynix. It fixes many of MFR flaws and it’s a huge improvement. AFR can tolerate high voltage at high speeds and runs great on X99 and Z170. Typical benching scenarios are

  • DDR4-3600 12-17-17 at 1.65v
  • DDR4-3733 12-18-18 at 1.75v
  • DDR4-3866 13-18-18 at 1.85v
  • DDR4-4000 13-19-19 at 1.94v

Samsung D-Die K4A4G085WD

The first die from Samsung has good voltage tolerance and can be found on a lots of modules. The ICs can go up to 2-2.1V on air and scaling is linear.

Typical: DDR4-3733 15-19-19 for the worst kits with 1.8-1.9V to better sticks doing even 13-18-18.

Samsung E-DIE K4A4G085WE

Second revision from Samsung gained huge improvements. Voltage tolerance is great ,taking up to 2.1V at 4200+ speeds. tRCD limits have gone lower and overall it looks like a very solid IC. Typical benching scenarios are:

  • DDR4-3600 11-17-17 at 1.9V and under
  • DDR4-3866 11-19-19 at 2.05V and under
  • DDR4 -4000 12-20-20 at 2V and under

The best modules to aim for are low TRCD ones, generally aim for DDR4-3600 TRCD/TRP 17 and DDR4-4000 TRCD/TRP 19. They are the easiest to clock modules and also can go lower in tertiary/secondary ,TRFC of 280 at 4200 speed should not be a problem for good sticks.

Samsung B-DIE K4A8G085WB

B-die a.k.a K4A8G085WB started manufacturing middle of 2015 with the first IC carrying week 524 code on Samsung OEM and 528 on 3rd party vendors. It shares a lot with previous E-die in voltage/mhz/tcl scaling while also allowing ridiculous low TRCD-TRP limits which simply makes it the best choice in overclockers arsenal. At the moment 70% or more of the market B-die seems to be manufactured at the same factory with the same 10-layer PCB.

As good as it is for benching, this Particular IC has its flaws also. Those seem to be: voltage tolerance and "copy-waza" issue:.

  • Voltage tolerance: B-die seems to be less permissive than E-die, with a lot of sticks getting issues at 1.95V and over. Considering B-die voltage scaling is like 0.1V per each 133 mhz at TCL12 (e.g DDR4-3733 C12-12-12 required 1.67,DDR4-3866 requires 1.77, DDR4-4000 requires 1.87 on same stick) it is clear that the goal is to find sticks that are decently in voltage requirement at DDR4-4000 (under 1.95V) but tolerating 2.05. Note that voltage tolerance does not improve with cold or different cpu or motherboard.
  • Copy-waza issue: the module will run every benchmark at a given frequency and timings except Super PI 32M with copy-waza tweak. Based on Alex@ro's research it seems that the flaw is related to B-die production weeks and my testing showed that:
    • sticks 534-540 including 540 will pass most of the times wazza
    • 543 has a 50% chance of passing wazza;
    • 545 549 552 will fail most of the times ;
    • 601-616 has a decent chance of passing wazza;
    • 619 will pass most of the times wazza (80%+ in my testing)

4-dimm motherboards will have a hard time running B-die over 3866 and if your goal is to reach DDR4-4000 12 12 12 on these motherboards, serious binning of the motherboard is required (see section below).

2-DIMM vs 4-DIMM

4-DIMM is faster than 2 DIMM at similar clocks/timings. However this puts more stress on IMC and results in looser timings sometimes. The only timing to be adjusted is TWRWR_DD which has to be 8 otherwise platform will not start.


Extreme Overclocking

ASUS Republic of Gaming

The in-house overclockers at the ASUS ROG R&D department prepared for the Skylake launch with an extreme overclocking event titled 'Z170 Absolute Zero'[30]. At the event the team found that the Skylake processors could sustain Liquid Helium temperatures, but did not scale in terms of overclocking capabilities.

Coolice from ROG shared the ASUS ROG OC Guide covering various topics related to overclocking the Maximus VIII motherboard series. The guide includes overclocking software like ROG Connect Plus, Turbo V, and MemTweakIT as well as handy tools to install XP from a USB drive and the AHCI XP driver. The thread also includes a link to an overclocking guide dedicated to the Maximus VIII series. The OC guide includes topics on BCLK, DRAM, Core/cache frequency, and LN2 overclocking. Here are some pointers

  • For BCLK overclocking: focus on the PLL Termination Voltage (or the linked CPU standby Voltage) and PLL Bandwidth. Level 6 PLL Bandwidth combined with 1.45V PLL Termination should give you decent margins. 350 MHz BCLK should be pretty easy on air cooling.
  • For DRAM overclocking, the most important rails are VCCIO and VCCSA. Setting both to 1.12V should be sufficient for DDR4-3500. Also note that the tRCD is tied to tRP and must be in sync, hence why there's only one option to control them. The highest available DRAM Ratio is DDR4-4133.
  • For LN2 overclocking: the CPU core and cache now use the same voltage rail, so you cannot configure it independently. To max out the CPU, you will need between 1.7V and 1.83V. Lower the BCLK frequency as low as possible to reduce the jitter on the PLL. Most importantly, replace the TIM between the IHS and CPU die. Some CPUs may have PCIe cold bug at around -150°C, so use the PCH PCIe slots for testing.

MSI

First page of MSI's Z170 Skylake LN2 guide

Christopher "Pepinorang" Besse released an alternative extreme overclocking guide for MSI motherboards at the end of September[31]. The guide focuses on MSI's overclocking-oriented motherboard, the Z170A XPower Gaming Titanium Edition and includes information on CPU core, cache as well as memory overclocking. Here are the main take-ways

  • Delid CPU is a must do for Skylake Ln2 overclocking as it can improve core clocks up to 600Mhz on some CPUs (mine was 5.7G in Cinebench R15 before and 6.3G after)
  • To Delid CPU, you can follow this excellent video guide from German overclocker Der8auer: https://youtu.be/JkGASegVRiM. However, I would recommend to not glue IHS back and replace thermal paste after every mount for extreme OC
  • Best results were obtained with T-Grizzly Kryonaut everywhere (Core to HIS + IHS to CPU cooling)
  • Dry thermal paste in oven during 30 - 60min or several days in dehumidifier (best) for better resistance to crack phenomenon
  • When thermal paste cracks at or below -175°, delta between pot temperature & CPU gets bigger and Core often go positive under load
  • You can use hole in Z170A XPOWER socket to place sensor at back of CPU to monitor its die temperature
  • Sand down IHS inside/outside with P2000 sand paper for better resistance to crack phenomenon and better thermal contact
  • You can also slightly sand down CPU die with rough sponge for better resistance to crack phenomenon
  • Try to go down in temperature slowly, step by step, do not throw big shots of ln2 and do not fulfill pot straight as thermal paste will crack much faster, sometimes instantly
  • Full pot is usually not the best, -165 ~ -180° seems to be the sweet spot for many CPUs
  • Never over tight Ln2 pot as it will bend socket and CPU very easily, gently tight pot just enough to not move anymore
  • You can copy/paste my settings from following screenshots in this guide as a starting base for Ln2 to create AIR and LOW Ln2 profiles and adjust settings according to your particular hardware


Hardware

To overclock Skylake you need an overclockable processor and motherboard.

  • Core i7 6700K processor
  • Core i5 6600K processor
  • Z170 chipset

Alternatively, you can also overclock the mobile part.

  • Core i7 6820HK processor


Software Tools

ASRock

ASUS

Biostar

GIGABYTE

Intel

MSI


Milestones

Achievement Overclocker Result CPU Motherboard Source
Highest Frequency Core i7 Chi-Kui Lam 7025.7 MHz Core i7 6700K ASRock Z170M OC Formula CPU-Z, HWBOT
Highest Frequency Core i5 Smoke 6808.38 MHz Core i5 6600K ASUS Maximus VIII Extreme CPU-Z, HWBOT
Highest Frequency Core i3 Naruto80 6514.6 MHz Core i3 6320 ASUS Maximus VIII Gene CPU-Z, HWBOT
Highest BCLK Frequency DrWeez 552.27 MHz Core i5 6600K ASUS Maximus VIII Extreme CPU-Z, HWBOT
Highest DDR4 Frequency Splave DDR4-5189 Core i7 6700K ASRock Z170M OC Formula CPU-Z, HWBOT


Overclocking Guides

Written Guides

Video Guides

Extreme Overclocking Guides

International


References

  1. Dan Snyder, "Intel Unleashes Next-Gen Enthusiast Desktop PC Platform at Gamescom", (hwbot.org, August 5 2015), [1]
  2. HWBOT, "Skylake, The Day After: 7 World Records and 10 Global First Places", (hwbot.org, August 7 2015), [2]
  3. HWBOT, " Toppc`s CPU Frequency - 6801.63 mhz with Intel Core i7 6700K", (Toppc, August 6 2015), [3]
  4. HWBOT, "Smoke`s CPU Frequency - 6808.38 mhz with Intel Core i5 6600K", (Smoke, August 5 2015), [4]
  5. HWBOT, "Chi-Kui Lam`s Memory Clock score - 2397.7 MHz with DDR4 SDRAM", (Chi-Kui Lam, August 5 2015), [5]
  6. HWBOT, "DrWeez`s Reference Clock score - 552.27 MHz with ASUS Maximus VIII Extreme", (DrWeez, August 5 2015), [6]
  7. YouTube, " Intel Developer Forum 2015 The Game Changer with Doug Fisher and Kirk Skaugen", (), [7]
  8. Massman, " Yes, that's the Intel CEO Mr. Brian Krzanich overclocking together with L0ud_sil3nc3 and Splave at IDF'15", (hwbot.org, August 20 2015), [8]
  9. HWBOT, "Der8auer Hits 7GHz on Skylake with Retail i7 6700K!", (hwbot.org, January 5 2016), [9]
  10. Rtsurfer, "forum post", (hwbot.org, July 22 2015), [10]
  11. HKEPC, "Intel Core i7-6700K @ 1.35V Air Cooling !! 看來Skylake真的比Broadwell好玩多了", (facebook.com/hkepc, July 20 2015), [11]
  12. Chris.L, "非 K 系列處理器也能超頻,Skylake 平台可玩性變高一些", (benchlife.info, July 27 2015), [12]
  13. HWBOT, "WCCFTech Reports Overclocking Enabled on Locked Skylake CPUs (but it's not true)", (hwbot.org, July 29 2015), [13]
  14. HWBOT, "Dhenzjhen Unlocks BCLK on Retail Skylake Core i3: Core i3 6320 at 4.6GHz", (hwbot.org, December 2 2015), [14]
  15. JagatOC, "Hands-on Review: Overclocking BCLK Core i3-6100 on SuperMicro C7H170-M", (oc.jagatreview.com, December 5 2015), [15]
  16. HWBOT, "Elmor`s Cinebench R11.5 - 7.22 points with Intel Core i3 6300 at 5800MHz", (Elmor, December 11 2015), [16]
  17. HWBOT, "Unlocked BCLK for All Skylake CPUs by ASUS and ASRock. Update: ASUS, ASRock, MSI BIOSes up for Download", (hwbot.org, December 12 2015), [17]
  18. HWBOT, "GIGABYTE and Biostar Now Also Non-K Skylake Overclockable on Z170 Motherboards", (hwbot.org, December 24 2015), [18]
  19. Marc Prieur, "i5-6400 à 4.5 GHz, le retour de l'oc chez Intel ?", (hardware.fr, December 30 2015), [19]
  20. Gordon Mah Ung, "It's official: Intel shuts down the cheap overclocking party by closing Skylake loophole", (pcworld.com, February 8 2016), [20]
  21. Elmor, "HOWTO: Flash older BIOS on ASUS Z170", (hwbot.org, ), [21]
  22. Mark Walton, "Intel Skylake bug causes PCs to freeze during complex workloads", (arstechnica.co.uk, January 11 2016), [22]
  23. ASUS ROG OC Guide, '"ROG Maximus VIII"', (Coolice, August 17 2015), [23]
  24. BarboneNet, '"[HOW TO] Guide How to make working USB on Asrock, Asus and MSI with XP"', (BarboneNet, December 12 2015), [24]
  25. HWBOT Forum, "Skylake Delid and TIM Swapping", (Splave, August 8 2015), [25]
  26. HWBOT Forum, "der8auer Delid Die Mate", (Der8auer, November 11 2015), [26]
  27. Mark Tyson, "Intel to launch unlocked Skylake-K processors for laptops", (hexus.net, August 20 2015), [27]
  28. Vlad Savov, " The Asus GX700 is the water-cooled laptop of your nightmarish dreams ", (theverge.com, September 2 2015), [28]
  29. Pieter Plaisier, "SkatterBencher #3: Overclocking the ROG GX700, a Water-Cooled Notebook", (hwbot.org, June 27 2016), [29]
  30. YouTube, "ASUS ROG Z170 Absolute Zero - Overclocking Event", (ASUS ROG, August 6 2015), [30]
  31. Pepinorang, "A[Overclocking Support Thread] MSI Z170A XPOWER GAMING TE", (hwbot.org, September 23 2015), [31]